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  1. Heavy Duty Fleet Trucks Burn Ethanol
  2. Trucking Institute Demonstrates Alternative Fuels in Heavy Vehicles
  3. Simultaneous Combustion of Natural Gas and Biogas
  4. Bed-mixing Dryer for Moist Biomass Fuels
  5. Combustion of Large Round Bales of Wheat Straw Provides Heat for Farm Use
  6. Farm Heating Provided by Combustion of Large Square Bales of Linseed Straw
  7. Large-scale Batch-wise Anaerobic Digestion of Vegetable Garden and Fruit Waste  Produces Biogas
  8. Demonstration of Large-scale Anaerobic Treatment of Organic Waste for the Production of Biogas
  9. Biodiesel Production from Waste Fats and Alcohol, with Testing Tailored to Native American Values
  10. Harvester Collects Mesquite Shrub for Biofuels
  11. Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge at Kingsbridge, Devon
  12. Food Processing Effluent as an Energy Source
  13. Cotton Stalk Harvester Collects Agricultural Waste for Use as Fuel
  14. Rapeseed Oil Biodiesel Production in the South Eastern US
  15. Co-firing Shredded Switchgrass in a 50 MW Pulverized Coal Boiler
  16. Diesel Engines Use RME
  17. Idaho Potato Waste Converted to Biodiesel for Engine Tests
  18. Switchgrass Variety Trials in the Upper South-east of America
  19. Pilot Scale Conversion of Paper in Municipal Solid Waste to Ethanol Fuel
  20. Peoria District Operates Ethanol Bus Fleet
  21. Miami Tests Alternative Fuels in Buses
  22. Ethanol-powered Buses Reduce Vehicle Emissions in Stockholm
  23. Light-duty Vehicles Use Ethanol in a National Demonstration in the USA
  24. Light-duty Government Vehicles Employ Methanol Blend Fuel
  25. Biomass Co-generation Power Plant at Forssa, Finland
  26. Wood Chip Fired Heating System for a Farm and Cottage
  27. Waste and Scrap Wood Combustion with Pollution Reduction Connected to District Heating System
  28. Waste-wood Combustion in Greenhouses
  29. Wood Chip Fuelled Boiler for Small Scale Industrial Use
  30. Wood Fired Heating for a Large Stately Home on Drayton Estate
  31. Steam Production by Burning Residual Materials in a Fluidised Bed Boiler
  32. Allingabro District Heating Plant
  33. Wood Fuel Chips Delivered to the Roadside in a Single Processing Run
  34. Direct Combustion Efficiencies of Wood-fired Systems Tested at Seven Sites in the USA
  35. Willow and Poplar Coppice Provide Fuel for Small Scale Industrial and Domestic Heating
  36. Wood Chips Provide Space Heating and Hot Water for a Small Group of Buildings
  37. Co-production of High Quality Pulp Chips and Wood Fuel in Finland
  38. Cloning Silver Maple for Energy Crop Cultivation
  39. Conversion of Combustible Waste into a Usable Fuel
  40. Electricity Production from Wood Waste Reduces Air Pollution
  41. Highly Valued Living Comfort Provided by Wood Stoves and Active and Passive Use of Solar Energy
  42. Locally Available Wood Chips Used as Fuel for a Small District Heating System
  43. Wood and Coal Co-firing at 108 MW Level
  44. Pulsed Fuel Agitation Helps Small Application Grate Combustion Unit Burn Biomass
  45. Maabjerg Combined Heat and Power Plant
  46. Rotating Grate Technology for the Combustion of Wet Biomass and Waste Fuels
  47. Recovering the Energy in the Flue Gases of a District Heating Plant Using an Absorption Heat Pump
  48. Short Rotation Coppice Provides Fuel for Heating
  49. Regional Testing of 'Populus' Clones for Wood Fuel
  50. Direct Fuel Cells in a Rural Situation Achieve Dual Energy Production
  51. Gasification / Combustion of Waste Wood in a Boiler
  52. Black Liquor Gasification Produces a Clean Hydrogen-rich Gas
  53. Wood Gasification Installation for Heating a Horticulture Greenhouse
  54. Hawaii Project Validates Full-scale Gasification and Hot Gas Clean Up Using Bagasse
  55. Vermont Wood Chip Plant Verifying High-throughput Gasification Technology
  56. New Technology for Wet and Dry Woodfuel in Small-scale Heating Plant
  57. Ethanol-powered Buses in Skaraborg - a Proven Technology
  58. Flexible Fuel Vehicles. A Technology to Assist the Market Penetration of Ethanol
  59. Ethanol-powered Trucks for Use in Urban Area
  60. Biomass-fired Superheater for more Efficient Electricity Generation from Waste  Incineration Plants
  61. Green Electricity from Wood Residue

Technical Brochures

51: Ethanol as Aviation Fuel, USA

Aviation gasoline, the only leaded fuel remaining in the US transportation fuel  market, is to be phased out. This brochure describes a project which   demonstrates that ethanol represents a viable alternative. Aircraft fuelled by ethanol from a variety of agricultural wastes have been  flown at airshows in the  USA, South America and Europe. The brochure gives details of  economics and engine performance. (Printed 1997)

58: Food Production Using Biomass Technology (USA)

A coffee roasting system using wood chips has been developed by a US company. A  year-long demonstration of the roasting method showed that biomass combustion can be  a safe, low-cost alternative to the use of natural gas  in a food processing operation. The system uses proprietary furnace technology  characterised by thermal control and clean combustion, which, when used  with  wood chips, achieves an even, slow roast, resulting in high-quality coffee flavour. The technology has potential for use in other medium-temperature  applications in  food processing, district  heating and small-scale energy production.(Printed 1997)

62:  Ethanol-powered Buses Reduce Vehicle Emissions in Stockholm, Sweden

Since  1990, Stockholm's city centre has been served by 32 Scania ethanol-powered buses. These buses generate far lower emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulates  than diesel-powered buses, and there is no net carbon  dioxide effect  as the raw material is based on forestry by-products. The company has been so pleased with the results that it is now phasing out diesel buses. (Printed 1997)

74: The Masnedø CHP Plant  Using Indigenous CO2 -neutral Fuels, (Denmark)

The  Masnedø plant uses only straw and wood chips as fuel to produce heat for the local town and electricity for the local grid.  The high temperature and pressure  in the boiler ensure a higher efficiency compared to other  straw-fired CHP plants.(Printed 1998)

79: Recovering Energy from the Flue Gases of a Biomass-fired District  Heating Plant, (Finland)

Flue gases from wood and peat combustion contain large quantities of steam at high temperature. A new condensation system  recovers about  95% of this energy  at a 45MW district heating plant. The plant now produces about 2030% more heat from the same amount of fuel.(Printed 1998)

80: New Fuel-drying Technology: Higher Efficiency and Lower Emissions, (Finland)

New  fuel-drying technology for high-moisture fuels has been demonstrated in Finland. It is suitable for power plants using fluidised bed combustion for  co-generation or power generation  alone. The dryer uses the heat of the  fluidised bed directly for drying and improves the thermal efficiency of the plant by up to 15%.(Printed 1998)

88: The Sabro Straw-fired District Heating Plant, Denmark

This straw-fired district heating plant  provides and annual fuel-to-heat efficiency of 85%.  The ashes are used as fertiliser, and an oxygen sensor  secures optimum  combustion conditions with minimum emissions of unburned compounds.  The straw replaces 1.4  million m3 of natural gas and provides CO2-neutral energy.

91: Ethanol Buses in Skaraborg

In Sweden, a programme to demonstrate the use of ethanol as a fuel for buses, truck and cars has been underway since 1991.  More than 300  ethanol-powered  buses are now running in various cities  across the country.  Skaraborg has a fleet of 15 buses with third-generation ethanol engines.  The project has been running  for 5 years and has demonstrated that  ethanol is a technically viable fuel option.

95: Straw-fired CHP Plant in Rudkøbing

The Danish straw-fired CHP plant at Rudkøbing was one of the first CHP plants to  use locally-produced straw as its only feedstock.  It has become a model plant, as it  was previously believed to be difficult to produce both heat and power from  an inhomogeneous fuel such as straw when efficient cleaning of flue gas was also a requirement.  The plant  has a capacity of 2.3 MW electricity  and 7.5 MJ/s heat.

96: The World's First Straw-fired CHP Plant Offers Environmental Benefits

The Haslev CHP plant in Denmark is the first in the world  to use straw for heating and power generation with no overall greenhouse effect.  The total net efficiency is   about 86 per cent of the calorific value of the straw, giving an energy loss of just 14 per  cent.  The plant has a nominal capacity of 5 MW electricity and 13 MJ/s heat.

104: A Biomass CHP Plant in Växjö, Sweden

A new CHP plant, which uses only biomass as fuel, has been built by a Swedish energy company.  The plant, which has an output of 38 MWe and 66 MWth, serves the entire heating requirement of the Växjö district and 30–40% of it's electricity needs.  About 146,000  tonnes of CO2 emissions are avoided annually by using the new plant. (Printed 1999)

109: Biopellets Replace Oil in a District Heating System

The annual energy demand of the Agricultural University of Norway used to exceed 1 million litres of oil, but now more than 90% of this is being met by 2,200 tonnes of biopellets. The 3.6 MW plant supplies around 11 million kWh/year of heat and has reduced emissions of CO2 and SO2. Biopellets have a 20–30% higher density than typical biomass pellets. (Printed 2000)

110: New Technology for Combustion of Wet and Dry Biofuels

Installed in Finland in 1998, this 2.2 MW high efficiency “EcoFlame” boiler uses bark and wood waste with a moisture content of 5–60% to produce heat for kilns firing laminated wood products. Appropriate for the production of heat within the 0.3–4.0 MW range, Ecoflame technology allows the use of low-cost and rough wood fuels such as whole-tree chips, wood-residue chips, bark and sawdust. (Printed 2000)

112: Biogas Combined Heat and Power in Sweden

In this project, 50–60 apartment blocks are supplied with both electricity and heat from a CHP plant which processes about 30,000 tonnes/year of manure and around 5,000 tonnes/year of organic waste from industry. Since starting operation, the biogas plant has provided 3,000–4,000 m3/day of gas, producing 450 kW of electricity and 650 kW of heat.

114: Wood Waste as a Substitute for Coal

A 635 MW power station in the Netherlands is fuelled by coal and waste wood. The wood, a mixture of forestry and demolition waste, is pulverised before being combusted in four specially designed burners.  Waste wood replaces about 45,000 tonnes/year of coal, saving 110,000 tonnes/year of carbon dioxide emissions. (Printed 2000)

116: Wood Chip Gasifier Supplies Heat to a Small Community

A full-scale gasification system supplies district heating to a community of about 560 houses in a small town in Denmark. The system consists of an updraught gasifier, a gas purifying system and a gas burner. The plant, which uses conventional wood chips has been operational since 1993, and a development programme to optimise the gasifier has now been completed. (Printed 2000)

117: Wet Biomass Use at the New Oslo International Airport

Oslo's new international airport has a district heating system based on biomass with up to 65 percent moisture content.  Some initial difficulties were overcome during the first year of operation and, in 1999, the heating plant delivered about 54 GWh.  The use of forestry residues to provide this heat avoids the use of about 40 GWh/year of fuel oil. (Printed 2000)

123: Green Electricity from the Combustion of Clean Waste Wood

A CHP unit extracts the maximum energy benefit from 15,600 tonnes/year of clean wood residue at a sawmill and woodworking factory in the Netherlands.  The plant produces 7 GWh of electricity, which is distributed to 1,800 households. Heat from the condenser is used in the sawmill's wood-drying sheds. (Printed 2000)

Newsletter Articles

2/93 Arable Coppice - a Growing Issue - UK
3/94 Development of Biodiesels Continues - Finland
Norway's Energy Farm
3/96 Biomass Harvesting in Western USA: An Overview
4/97 Prospects for Energy Crops in the Netherlands - also available in pdf
1/98 Progress with Bio-refinery - also available in pdf
2/98 Renewable Energy for Heating and Cooling at the New Oslo International   Airport - also available in pdf
2/98 Installation of a Biomass-fuelled Bioler at an Existing  Coal-fired Power Plant - also available in pdf
3/98 Swedish biomass CHP plant - also available in pdf
3/98 Europe's biggest biomass power station - also available in pdf
4/98 Boiler system for dry and moist biofuel - also in pdf format
2/99 Wood fuel goes to school in the UK - also in pdf format
2/99 Cereals: an alternative energy source - also in pdf format
3/99 Biomass offers intergrated solutions in Australia - also in pdf format
3/99 Energy from waste and biomass - also as pdf format
4/99 New small-scale CHP plant for biomass fuels - also as pdf format
1/00 Parallel combustion of biomass - also in pdf format
2/00 Pellet power: a multi-purpose bioenergy plant - also in pdf format

Energy Crops Mini-Review

The Energy Crops Mini-Review, which was held in  Oxford during 1995 and updated  during 1997, was led by Dr Caroline Foster from ETSU (UK). The review covered the biomass energy from crops and crop residues, including woody  crops, herbaceous energy crops, commodity crops (such as maize, cereals, rape, soy  bean, etc), forest residues and crop residues. Contributions from eleven countries have been compiled to identify and compare national policies,  barriers to the  deployment of biomass energy, environmental considerations and current market enhancement mechanisims. Part of the study is dedicated to describing the different biomass resources and the conversion mechanisms  used. Some case  studies of recent projects are included in the report. The final report on the study is now available from the CADDET Centre or CADDET National Teams

Last updated 24 July, 2000

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