Complete List of Technical Brochures

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157: Local, Cost-effective Energy from Wastderived Fuel

A small, solid-fuel gasification plant has been built at Tingvoll in Norway. It is the first commercial application of a modular gasification plant, designed by Organic Power ASA to be tailored to each customer's needs. The plant is robust and tolerates a wide range of waste and biomass fuels, including those with a relatively high moisture content. The standard module, on which this brochure is based, is a 2 MWth unit.

156: Small-scale Biomass Heating Plant with Low Emissions

Dust emissions from biomass plants often pose environmental problems. Large biomass-fired direct district heating installations are usually fitted with efficient exhaust gas cleaning systems, but these are often too expensive for smaller plants.  In this project, at Höör in Sweden, the problem has been solved using an innovative 'wet electrostatic precipitator'. This combines exhaust cleaning with heat recovery from condensation, giving both lower emissions and higher efficiency.

155: Fuel Cell System Fed with Waste Methanol

The electronics company Seiko Epson Corporation is using chemical waste to generate energy in fuel cells at one of its manufacturing plants in Japan. Waste methanol is gasified to produce hydrogen for two 200 kWe fuel cells. The fuel cell system has an overall efficiency of 80% and the company won Japan's award for New Energy Equipment in 1999 for pioneering the use of recycled waste alcohol as fuel.

154: Upgrading of Biogas to Natural Gas Quality

Since 1991, 10 municipalities in the Netherlands have been participating in a project to extract and upgrade biogas from vegetable waste. At Tilburg, a digestion plant produces high-quality compost as well as 3,000,000 m3/year of biogas. This gas is upgraded to natural gas quality in a facility originally designed to refine landfill gas. The net yield of the process is 1,360,000 m3/year of synthetic natural gas – enough for 1,360 households.

153: Clean Energy From Household Waste

Ten years of research into energy recovery from household waste have culminated in a new energy recovery plant in Averoy, Norway. The project shows that household waste can be incinerated, achieving a good rate of energy recovery, even when the fuel contains wet organic fractions.  The plant burns 30,000 tonnes of waste from a total of 15 municipalities and delivers energy in the form of steam to a local fish food factory. Seven similar plants are now under construction of being planned in Norway, Sweden and Germany.

152: Solar Pumping in India

The Indian government has initiated a nationwide programme to install 50,000 PV driven irrigation pumps . This brochure describes the pilot project, comprising 1,000 PV pumps, which provided operational experience to inform the full-scale programme. The project, which received technical and financial support from the Netherlands, has successfully demonstrated the benefits of PV pumping systems and has helped to stimulate the Indian PV industry. (Printed March 2001)

151: Straw-based "Neighbour Heating" in Denmark

In recent years, some Danish farmers have invested in extra-large straw-fired boilers to supply heat to one or more neighbours, thus utilising their own straw production.  This is particularly applicable in rural areas, where the installation of conventional district heating plants is too expensive. This brochure features a simple straw-fired neighbour heating system that supplies heat to 70 homes and local municipal facilities. (Printed March 2001)

150: Effective Treatment and Recycling of Livestock Waste

Yagi bio-ecology Center (Yagi BEC), in an agricultural area in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan, generates electricity in a CHP plant using biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion of agricultural waste. Manure from 1,500 pigs and 650 cattle, together with waste from soy bean curd production, provides enough biogas to generate 2,400 kWh/day, a large proportion of which is used in the plant itself. Yagi BEC also earns revenue for treating livestock waste. (Printed March 2001)

149: Combined Heat and Power Plant Burns Woodchips and Biogas

A woodchip-fired CHP plant in a Danish village has been modified to include a biogas plant. The plant supplies a district heating network and the electricity it generates is sold to the grid. Biogas for the plant is produced by anaerobic digestion of local biomass and the residue from the digestion process is returned to local farms for use as fertiliser. (Printed March 2001)

148: Multi-megawatt Wind Turbines for Future Offshore Use

In August 1999, the world's largest commercially built wind turbine became operational at Lammefjorden in Denmark. This prototype was tested and modified before five further 2MW wind turbines were erected o the same onshore site in May2000. The six turbines are expected to produce a total of 24 GWh/year, equivalent to the electricity consumption of about 6,000 Danish Households. (Printed March 2001)

147: Wood Fuel Heating at a UK School

A 350 kW wood-fired boiler demonstration project in a UK school is stimulating rural employment and sustainable development.  The school's heating system is fuelled by locally-grown wood supplied by a co-operative of local farmers and agricultural contracotrs. The wood chip fuel is derived from woodland thinnings and from short-roation forestry crops. (Printed 2001)

146: A Sunny Future for Nieuwland

A variety of PV systems, producing a total of 1.62 MW p, have been fitted in 943 houses, two schools, a kindergarten and a sports complex in a development area in the Netherlands. The aim of the project, which is among the largest in the world, was to experiment with the various ways of implementing PV power production in an urban development.. While the project has been an architectural success, it has also served to identify various difficulties with the use of PV panels as building elements, and some possible solutions. (Printed 2001)

145: A PV-Wind Hybrid System on Bullerö Island, Sweden

Bullerö is situated in the Stockholm archipeligo, far from the nearest electricity grid. A PV-wind power facility has been running since 1988, to meet the islands power needs. This was expanded in 1996, by enlarging hte PV part of the system and installing a monitoring system. The performance of the hybrid system was measured from 1997 to 1999, and the results show this stand-alone system to be successful. (Printed 2001)

144: Östra Kvarn Micro Hydro Power Project

An old water mill in southern Sweden has been restored, and a micro hydro plant installed, to demonstrate ways of minimising the impact of micro hydro schemes on the environment. The mill now houses a catering company which uses the electricity generated by the plant. With an annual output of 135 MWh, the hydro plant meets over 90% of the catering company's electricity needs. (Printed 2001)

143: Wind Turbine Provides Electricity for Arctic Town

Alaska’s first successful utility wind power plant is in its third year of operation in the small coastal town of Kotzebue. The plant comprises 10 low-maintenance wind turbines with a combined rated capacity of 660 kW, which meet the electricity needs of 200 homes. The wind energy is replacing diesel generators in this remote region, and the experience gained from the project is being used to help other communities to generate electricity from wind. (Printed 2001)

142: A PV Installation on an Office Building in Sweden

One of Sweden's largest grid-connected PV installations is located on the roof and façade of IKEA's office building in Älmhult, Sweden. The 60 kWp grid-connected installation has been operating since September 1997. The roof-mounted, multi-crystalline silicon PV modules have performed well. However power production from façade-integrated, amorphous silicon thin-film modules has been limited owing to wide variations in their output. (Printed 2001)

141: Wind Farm Harnesses the Roaring Forties

At Huxley Hill Wind Farm, on King Island in the Bass Strait, between Australia and Tasmania, wind energy is replacing diesel to meet 15% of the island's electricity needs. The three-turbine wind farm was commissioned in 1998 and, in its first two years, produced an average 2.2 GWh/year of electricity. The wind farm has been accepted well by the island community. (Printed 2001)

140: Solar Concentrators Provide Hot Water for Large Building

A concentrating-solar water-heating system has been operating at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution in Arizona since 1999. Financing was arranged through a long-term contract between the prison and an energy services company. The prison gets the energy produced by the solar-concentrating system for 10% less than if the energy was purchased from the electricity company. In its first year of operation the system delivered almost 1.2 GWh of thermal energy to the prison. (Printed 2001)

139: Installation of a Biomass-fuelled Boiler at a Coal-fired CHP  Plant

A straw boiler equipped with a superheater fired by wood chips has been fitted in parallel with a conventional coal-fired boiler at a power  station in Denmark. Both boilers provide steam to the same high-pressure steam  turbine which generates electricity and provides heat for a local district heating system. The new biomass-fuelled boiler has reduced coal consumption and  carbon dioxide emissions. (Printed 2000)

138: PV-powered Service Stations

BP is installing PV systems on the roof canopies of petrol stations in ten countries. The size of the systems depends on the area of roof available but an average system generates enough electricity to power the petrol station's lighting and fuel pumps. The project seeks to promote the use of PV by raising awareness and by using the installation and operating experience to standardise system design, thereby reducing costs. (Printed 2000)

137: New Energy-from-Waste Plant in Dundee, Scotland

The UK's first bubbling fluidised bed boiler plant for waste treatment has been installed in Scotland.  The plant will process 120,000 tonnes/year of municipal and commercial waste, generating 81 GWhe.  About 80% of the power produced is exported, enough to supply around 14,000 homes. (Printed 2000)

136: A Multi-purpose Bioenergy Plant Producing Electricity, Heat and Biopellets

In Sweden, a biomass-fuelled CHP plant integrated with a biopellet production facility generates about 170 GWhe and 230 GWhth annually. The plant can also produce 29 tonnes/hour of biopellets at full capacity.  The heat generated by the plant is used for local district heating and the rate of pellet production can be varied to suit the heat demand. (Printed 2000)

135: An Arctic Wind Turbine in Northern Sweden

Wind turbine designs need to be modified to work in the harsh environment of the Arctic, where low operating temperatures and ice accumulation can cause problems.  A 600 kW wind turbine has had a successful fist year of operation at Suorva in Northern Sweden, generating 1,710 MWh of electricity. The turbine operated at temperatures down to -37°C, beating all expectations.  Only 3% of the electricity produced is required to run the de-icing system. (Printed 2000)

134: Batch Anaerobic Digestion of Green Waste in a BIOCEL Converter

A Dutch treatment plant, processing vegetable, garden and fruit waste into compost, also produces biogas. The plant uses anaerobic digestion to process 35,000 tonnes/year of waste, producing 2,200,000 m3/year of biogas.  Co-generation plant uses the biogas to produce 3,000 MWh/year of electricity, over half of which is exported. (Printed 2000)

133: A Company Dormitory with a Large Amorphous-silicon PV System

A dormitory for single employees has been built by a Tokyo company as a demonstration Eco-house. The dormitory has a 20 kWp amorphous-silicon PV system with a total panel area of about 485 square metres - one of the largest in Japan. The PV cells are inexpensive and have a good life-cycle energy performance. The large area of PV cells balances their low conversion efficiency. (Printed 2000)

132: Solar Wall Provides Economic Heating and Ventilation

A low-cost, high-performance solar “transpired air” collector saves over USD 4,300 in annual energy costs at a water treatment plant in Colorado. The system provides a cheap source of preheated ventilation air at an altitude of 3,000 m, and is designed for temperatures as low as -29 degrees Celsius. The featured system is housed in a 1,171 square metre metal building, but the technology is suitable for all large commercial buildings. (Printed 2000)

131: Air-conditioning System Exploiting Natural Energy

An Environmental Technology Centre in Shiga, Japan has been designed to use natural energy to reduce its primary energy demand by 20 percent. Passive solar design features, active solar heating technology and the use of natural daylight and ventilation have been combined with a number of energy saving features. The Centre is a showcase for sustainable building techniques. (Printed 2000)

130: Small-scale Hydro within a Municipal Water Supply System

In Bolder, Colorado, five hydroelectric units in the city's municipal water supply system produce enough electricity to provide 7 percent of the electricity consumption of Boulder’s 125,000 residents. Two more installations, currently under construction, will almost treble the city’s hydro capacity. The project demonstrates how small hydroelectric equipment can be applied cost-effectively in municipal water supply systems, wherever a pressure-relief valve is used to reduce excess pressure in supply lines. (Printed 2000)

129: Large-scale PV System on an Older Residential Building

During 1996-97 a large scale PV retrofit project was carried out on Solgaarden, a large, residential block in Kolding, Denmark. In 1998 the PV system produced a total of 76.3 MWh of electricity.  Solgaarden itself used 27 MWh of the PV-generated power; the surplus was sold to the local utility. In a typical year, carbon dioxide savings of 67.5 tonnes are expected. (Printed 2000)

128 Thermal Mass Integrated into Passive Solar Homes

A house building company in Colorado has combined the "thermal mass" concept (the use of building materials that can absorb, store and release heat) with passive solar design to create sustainable, affordable and energy-efficient homes.  These homes use about 48% less energy for heating than conventionally-built houses and normally require no conventional cooling systems, but cost only about 2 percent more to build. (Printed 2000)

127 Combined Solar Systems for Residential Buildings

Combined solar systems (also called "combi systems") have been installed in over 100 homes in Norway.  This brochure focuses on five of these homes, which were evaluated in 1998.  The combi systems' solar collectors are made from polymer materials, making them considerably cheaper than traditional solar systems. The solar gain from one of these combi systems is typically up to 8,000 kWh/year. (Printed 2000)

126 Glass Roof-integrated PV system at an environmental Centre

A semi-transparent photovoltaic roof, consisting of polycrystalline cells mounted between sheets of glass has been installed at the visitor centre of the Dutch National Environmental Information Centre. Spaces between the cells allow natural daylight to pass through, providing pleasant, diffuse light for the centre's exhibition area.  The average energy production of the roof is 4,000 kWh/year. (Printed 2000)

125: Danish Biogas Plant with Separate Line for Organic Household Waste

A state-of-the-art biogas plant with a daily biogas production of 10,000 cubic metres per day has been operating in Denmark since 1997. A range of waste types, such as farm slurry, fatty sludge and source-separated household waste can be processed by the plant, which is a joint venture by 16 farmers.  A prototype dewaster is used to separate plastics from the biomass. (Printed 2000)

124: Wind Farm in Zeebrugge Outer Harbour

This brochure features a wind farm in the North Sea, 2 km offshore in the outer harbour of Zeebrugge.  The wind farm, which now comprises 23 turbines, was built in 1986 and the electricity it generates - about 10 MWh/year - is sold to the Belgian grid. (Printed 2000)

123: Green Electricity from the Combustion of Clean Waste Wood

A CHP unit extracts the maximum energy benefit from 15,600 tonnes/year of clean wood residue at a sawmill and woodworking factory in the Netherlands.  The plant produces 7 GWh of electricity, which is distributed to 1,800 households.  Heat from the condenser is used in the sawmill's wood-drying sheds. (Printed 2000)

122: Advanced Condensers for Geothermal Power

The world's largest producer of geothermal power has installed an advanced direct-contact condenser in one of its generating units, increasing the potential generating capacity of the unit by about 17%.  At the same time, the chemical costs of emissions abatement were halved. The same technology could be used in any industrial process that generates steam or vapours. (Printed 2000)

121: Wind Power for a Remote Island Community

Two 225 kW wind turbines supply about 10% of the electricity needs of a remote community on Thursday Island, 800 km off the north coast of Australia. Wind power on the island replaces some of the diesel on which the island would otherwise rely totally. It offers an economic benefit owing to the high cost of importing fuel to such a remote area.  Electricity production from the wind turbines exceeded expectations in the first year of operation. (Printed 2000)

120: Solar-heated Dwellings with Seasonal Storage

In 1984, 96 houses in a Dutch village were equipped with solar collectors, a large underground heat store and a low-temperature central heating unit. The houses were monitored from 1984 to 1996, providing an opportunity to assess the long-term performance of such systems.  Over the 12 years, the solar heating system functioned well and supplied about 54 percent of the total heat demand of the houses. (Printed 2000)

119: Micro Hydro Power for a Remote Tourist Lodge

A 52 kW hydro system supplies electricity to a 90-bed guesthouse in Tasmania's remote Wilderness Area. Hydro power offered an environmentally-friendly alternative to either a diesel generator or clearance of native forest to make way for a transmission line.  The system also provides water for the site and has eliminated the need for additional water storage and pumping facilities for fighting bush fires. (Printed 2000)

118: Co-digestion of Manure with Industrial and Household Waste

The Kristianstad biogas plant is the first in Sweden to co-digest municipal solid waste with manure and other organic biomass to produce energy and fertiliser.  In 1998, the plant handled over 70,000 tonnes of waste and produced biogas equivalent to 20,000 MWh.  This project offers a sustainable solution to waste disposal problems encountered in many countries. (Printed 2000)

117: Wet Biomass Use at the New Oslo International Airport

Oslo's new international airport has a district heating system based on biomass with up to 65 percent moisture content.  Some initial difficulties were overcome during the first year of operation and, in 1999, the heating plant delivered about 54 GWh.  The use of forestry residues to provide this heat avoids the use of about 40 GWh/year of fuel oil. (Printed 2000)

116: Wood Chip Gasifier Supplies Heat to a Small Community

A full-scale gasification system supplies district heating to a community of about 560 houses in a small town in Denmark. The system consists of an updraught gasifier, a gas purifying system and a gas burner. The plant, which uses conventional wood chips has been operational since 1993, and a development programme to optimise the gasifier has now been completed. (Printed 2000)

115: A Diesel Engine Fuelled by Spent Vegetable Oil

A 500 kW diesel engine, fuelled by a mixture of spent vegetable oil and marine oil and marine gas oil, has been developed in Japan and installed in a tempura frying plant.  The project has provided an economical way of disposing of the spent oil.  The oil mixture is cheaper than using only spent oil that has been estrified, while the sulphur dioxide emissions are lower than those from marine gas alone. (Printed 2000)

114: Wood Waste as a Substitute for Coal

A 635 MW power station in the Netherlands is fuelled by coal and waste wood.  The wood, a mixture of forestry and demolition waste, is pulverised before being combusted in four specially designed burners. Waste wood replaces about 45,000 tonnes/year of coal, saving 110,000 tonnes/year of carbon dioxide emissions. (Printed 2000)

112: Biogas Combined Heat and Power in Sweden

In this project, 50–60 apartment blocks are supplied with both electricity and heat from a CHP plant which processes about 30,000 tonnes/year of manure and around 5,000 tonnes/year of organic waste from industry. Since starting operation, the biogas plant has provided 3,000–4,000 m3/day of gas, producing 450 kW of electricity and 650 kW of heat. (Printed 2000)

111: Thermal Hydrolysis of Sewage Sludge

In Norway, thermal hydrolysis is used to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, thus increasing the net energy produced and improving the quality of the sludge residue. The process reduces sludge volume to one third that of conventionally-dewatered raw sludge and produces 15,000 kWh/day in the from of steam at 10 bar. It is suitable for medium- to large-scale waste-water treatment plants. (Printed 2000)

109: Biopellets Replace Oil in a District Heating System

The annual energy demand of the Agricultural University of Norway used to exceed 1 million litres of oil, but now more than 90% of this is being met by 2,200 tonnes of biopellets. The 3.6 MW plant supplies around 11 million kWh/year of heat and has reduced emissions of CO2 and SO2. Biopellets have a 20–30% higher density than typical biomass pellets. (Printed 2000)

108: New 1 MW Wind Turbine in Sweden

This brochure features the prototype Nordic 1000 wind turbine, a two-bladed, horizontal-axis 1 MW machine which has a slender, lightweight construction similar to the smaller NWP 400 wind turbine design. The Nordic 1000 uses standard components and is 60% lighter than other turbines of the same size.

107: Solar Energy in Indonesia

To stimulate the deployment of photovoltaics in rural Indonesia, a pilot project was carried out in a village in Java.  The village has been equipped with a variety of PV systems for domestic use and public lighting.  In another district in Java, a financing scheme is enabling villagers to purchase photovoltaic systems which achieve payback through savings on kerosene for lighting and improve standards of living. (Printed 1999)

106: Wind–Diesel Project Brings Renewable Energy to Northern Russia

Low-cost, off-grid renewable energy solutions are being offered to remote communities in Northern Russia, which currently rely on expensive and unreliable diesel systems.  Wind–diesel hybrid systems are being set up in several areas under a joint project by the Russian and US governments. (Printed 1999)

105: Solar Thermal Demonstration System with a Large Paraboloidal Dish Concentrator

A large paraboloidal dish solar concentrator, featuring a hexagonal aperture unit covered with 400 m2 of mirrors, has been developed in Australia.  By tracking the sun throughout the day, the dish produces superheated steam in a boiler placed at the focal point of the concentrator.  The steam is expanded in a 50 kWe steam engine/generator set.  The demonstration dish has produced 60 MWh of solar power over four years. (Printed 1999)

104: A Biomass CHP Plant in Växjö, Sweden

A new CHP plant, which uses only biomass as fuel, has been built by a Swedish energy company.  The plant, which has an output of 38 MWe and 66 MWth,  serves the entire heating requirement of the Växjö district and 30–40% of it's electricity needs.  About 146,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions are avoided annually by using the new plant. (Printed 1999)

103: Renewable Energy House for Indigenous People in a Remote and Arid Area

A demonstration house, built on sustainable design principles, has improved the standard of living and reduced the use of energy from non-renewable sources in the challenging climate of central Australia.  Electricity is provided to the house by six photovoltaic panels.  Rainwater is collected for use throughout the house and water is heated by a solar hot water system.  These are just some of the sustainable features of the building. (Printed 1999)

101: The Largest Geothermal Power Station in Japan and Effective Use of Hot Water)

The town of Kokonoe-machi in the Kyushu province of Japan has three geothermal power stations with a combined energy output of 147.5 MW.  One of these is the  largest in Japan, at 110 MW capacity.  To ensure that the community takes full benefit from the resource, the town pursues a policy to exploit the geothermal hot water for the development of agriculture, tourism and other uses.  Thus, the hot water is used for glass-house horticulture, space heating and domestic hot water. (Printed 1999)

100: 'Zero-energy' House with Solar Panels Built at the Coldest Place in Japan

A demonstration 'zero-energy' house has been built at Asahikawa, Hokkaido, the coldest place in Japan.  The special design of the house has reduced energy consumption to one fifth of that of an ordinary house, while providing increased comfort.  Roofed with 12.5 kWp PV panels and equipped with a 5 square metre  solar thermal collector, it can produce enough energy to meet its annual consumption. (Printed 1999)

99: Electricity and Heat Production from the Largest Landfill Gas Plant in Denmark

Denmark's largest landfill gas plant is located at a recently-closed landfill site on reclaimed land.  It is a CHP plant which uses the methane gas from the waste to produce energy.  The landfill site contains over 6 million tonnes of waste, and estimates indicate that the site will produce methane for 15 to 20 years. A  remotely-monitored automatic measuring and regulation system was developed especially for this plant. (Printed 1999)

98: Power Generation from Landfill Gas, Winterton Power Plant, UK

Winterton landfill site receives 250,000 tonnes/year of waste.  Landfill gas extraction was introduced at the end of the 1980s.  Winterton Power Plant was  built in 1996 to convert about 7 million cubic metres of landfill gas to electricity annually. This brochure describes both the power plant and the extraction system used to collect the landfill gas. (Printed 1999)

97: New Energy-from-Waste Furnace in Norway

A full-scale furnace for waste materials, using new technology, has been in  operation in Norway since 1997.  The plant's low emissions and high energy utilisation satisfy the EU's proposed limits for the year 2000 by a wide margin.  It  is possible to build profitable plants of this type from as small as 3 MW output, allowing the establishment of plants with relatively low throughput. (Printed 1999)

96: The World's First Straw-fired CHP Plant Offers Environmental Benefits

The Haslev CHP plant in Denmark is the first in the world to use straw for heating  and power generation with no overall greenhouse effect.  The total net efficiency is about 86 per cent of the calorific value of the straw, giving an energy loss of just 14  per cent.  The plant has a nominal capacity of 5 MW electricity and 13 MJ/s heat. (Printed 1998)

95: Straw-fired CHP Plant in Rudkøbing

The Danish straw-fired CHP plant at Rudkøbing was one of the first CHP plants to use locally-produced straw as its only feedstock.  It has become a model plant, as it was previously believed to be difficult to produce both heat and power from an inhomogeneous fuel such as straw when efficient cleaning of flue gas was also a  requirement.  The plant has a capacity of 2.3 MW electricity and 7.5 MJ/s heat. (Printed 1998)

94: PV Systems Encourage Reduced Energy Use

PV panels integrated into the existing architecture in a small Danish town supply electricity either directly to consumers or to the grid.  The consumers can monitor  their own production and consumption on a newly-developed meter, making it possible for them to adjust their consumption to match their production. (Printed 1998)

93: Energy from Pre-sorted, Organic Household Waste and Manure

A new approach has allowed household waste to be mixed with manure and recycled to provide heat and electricity, as well as fertiliser. Two full-scale plants are now in operation, with a combined annual waste handling capacity of 181,000 tonnes, producing 6.4 million cubic metres of biogas. (Printed 1998)

92: Landfill Gas Used to Fuel a Power Station

A power station at Scotland's largest landfill site currently exports 3.8 MW of  electricity, generated from gas produced by the waste in the landfill, to the grid.  Four generator sets, with lean-burn engines are currently running and additional sets are planned which will give a total capacity of about 8 MW.  The gas collection system is designed to abstract the maximum amount of gas from the waste in order to reduce gas migration and odours (Printed 1998)

91: Ethanol Buses in Skaraborg

In Sweden, a programme to demonstrate the use of ethanol as a fuel for buses, truck and cars has been underway since 1991.  More than 300 ethanol-powered  buses are now running in various cities across the country.  Skaraborg has a fleet of 15 buses with third-generation ethanol engines.  The project has been running for 5 years and has demonstrated that ethanol is a technically viable fuel option. (Printed 1998)

90: Kalbarri Photovoltaic System

In 1995, Western Power commissioned Australia's largest PV system, a 20 kW grid-connected PV plant.  As well as demonstrating a locally-developed  current-controlled inverter, the plant provides operating experience and data on the benefits of distributed generation.  The demonstration has been successful and has provided valuable experience in dealing with this technology for Australian conditions. (Printed 1998)

89: Sustainable Technology at the Brundtland Centre Denmark

 The Brundtland Centre Denmark is an exhibition and educational centre devoted to sustainable development.  Advanced technologies and new materials are used to  reduce grid energy consumption and provide optimum comfort for users, including integrated PV panels, a daylighting system and the use of passive solar heating and natural ventilation.  All these technologies are incorporated in a building of outstanding architectural design. (Printed 1998)

88: The Sabro Straw-fired District Heating Plant, Denmark

This straw-fired district heating plant provides and annual fuel-to-heat efficiency of 85%.  The ashes are used as fertiliser, and an oxygen sensor secures optimum  combustion conditions with minimum emissions of unburned compounds.  The straw replaces 1.4 million m3 of natural gas and provides CO2-neutral energy. (Printed 1998)

87: Energy-supported Solar Houses

This brochure features two demonstration houses in Japan designed to be as self-sufficient in energy as possible.  The houses have grid-connected PV arrays,  solar water heaters, large triple glazed windows to the south and thermal insulation in the exterior walls.  They also utilise the thermal energy storage  capacity of the concrete walls and floors.  Together, all these features have resulted in a comfortable indoor environment and significant energy savings. (Printed 1998)

86: PV Power Systems for Disaster Schemes

Disaster situations such as earthquakes or typhoons can cut the power supply making it difficult to carry out relief operations.  In Japan, centres with independent power supplies have been set up to cope with such disasters.  This brochure features one of these centres - a filling station capable of refuelling emergency  vehicles and medical facilities using PV power to drive the pumps.  The power is generated by a roof-mounted 11 kWp PV system. (Printed 1998)

85: Novel Heat Pump System Exploits Ambient Energy

This novel heat pump system uses ambient energy, such as natural convection, wind and solar radiation.  It consists of outdoor panels, which effectively absorb and dissipate heat; storage units, which make ice by direct expansion refrigeration; and a compressor.  The system is installed on a commercial building in Tokyo, where it is performing well. (Printed 1998)

84: Solar House with Fully-integrated Photovoltaic Roof, UK

A solar house has been built which successfully integrates solar panels into the roof, comprising a 4 kW photovoltaic system and 5 m2 of solar thermal panels.  During the first year of operation, 2.7 MWh of photovoltaic electricity was available for use in the house or for export to the grid. (printed 1998)

83: Water Current Turbines Pump Drinking Water, UK

Water current turbines are used on rivers and canals for water pumping and to generate electricity.  This project is used on the Nile river to provide drinking water for about 5,000 people. (Printed 1998)

81: Hydro-electric Generating Station Built within a Canal Lock System, UK

A hydro-electric generating station has been built into a lock system on a ship canal.  The turbine operates within a water level regime which allows the efficient  movement of vessels along the canal. (Printed 1998)

78: Integration of Solar Collectors into the Building Process, Sweden

A new type of prefabricated solar collector roof module has been used successfully in a residential building development.  This new design has considerably simplified the integration of solar collectors into the building process. The solar system cost only 2% of the total building costs. Printed 1998

76: Geothermal and Solar Heat Used to Melt Snow on Roads, Japan

A snow-melting system uses downhole heat exchangers, a heat pump and heating pipes buried under a road. The system's main heat source is geothermal heat contained in the shallow earth; solar heat, stored in summer, is also used. The system is cheap to operate and has reduced the annual energy consumption for snow melting by 84%. Printed 1998

74: The Masnedø CHP Plant  Using Indigenous CO2-neutral Fuels, Denmark

The Masnedø plant uses only straw and wood chips as fuel to produce heat for the local town and electricity for the local grid.  The high temperature and pressure in  the boiler ensure a higher efficiency compared to other straw-fired CHP plants. (Printed 1998)

73: Low-cost Solar Air Collectors Dry Flower Bulbs, The Netherlands

A flower bulb company uses a 200 m2 solar air collector to provide heat for bulb-drying. During the 1996/97 drying season the installation provided about 152  GJ, equivalent to 5,445 m3 of natural gas, or 38% of the energy requirement for drying. Printed 1998

72: Wind Power Generation at Cheju Island, Korea

A demonstration project for wind power generation has been set up at Cheju Island, in order to assess the practical application of this technology in Korea and  to help maintain the clean environmental conditions on the island. Electricity is generated from three grid-connected wind turbines and a stand-alone turbine equipped with a battery system and diesel generator. (Printed 1998)

71: Large-scale Photovoltaic-integrated Roof at a Visitor Centre, UK

A 13.5 kW photovoltaic roof has been installed at a visitor complex in Wales. The PV modules generate electricity for the site and any surplus is  exported to the national grid. The modules also form a waterproof covering, thus saving the cost of a separate waterproof layer for the roof. (Printed 1998)

70: Anaerobic Water Purification in a Brewery in the Netherlands

A compact, two-stage, waste-water purification system has been installed in a Dutch brewery. It consists of an anaerobic reactor where organic compounds are converted into methane, and an aerobic reactor where hydrogen sulphide is oxidised. The biogas is used within the brewery and the purified waste water can be discharged into the sewer with no detrimental effects. (Printed 1998)

69: The Sun Factor - Passive Solar Design in the Netherlands

A housing project in the Netherlands was specially built to incorporate the main features of passive solar design. Constructed in the mid-1980s, the project achieved 60% energy savings, and played an important role in convincing architects and the public of the importance of passive solar design. (Printed 1998)

68:  33.6 MW Wind Farm near Carno (UK)

This large wind farm is located in mid-Wales and comprises 56 turbines, each rated at 600 MW. The wind farm provides sufficient electricity to meet the average needs of about 25,000 homes. Special efforts at the planning stage involved close liaison with the local community, and demonstrated a strong commitment to the environmental and economic future of the local area. (Printed 1998)

67: Building-integrated Photovoltaic System in the UK

Photovoltaic panels (totalling 40 kW) are incorporated into the new overcladding of a university building and the electricity produced contributes to meeting the building's needs for lighting, heating, computers and other appliances. (Printed 1998)

66: Food Waste Disposal Using Anaerobic Digestion (Republic of Korea)

A plant in Korea demonstrates a two-phase anaerobic digestion system which successfully processes municipal solid waste containing food waste to produce  compost, biogas and recovered materials. Anaerobic digestion provides a cheaper alternative to incineration for the disposal of food wastes. (Printed 1998)

65: The Tjæreborg Wind Turbines Project (Denmark)

Four MW-sized wind turbines are located at the same site on the west coast of Denmark. This provides a unique opportunity to compare the different designs and to investigate a range of issues, including stall or pitch regulation. (Printed 1998)

64: Low-energy Apartments in the Netherlands

The Urban Villa project concerns 16 low-energy apartments in an apartment block  in Amstelveen, the Netherlands. The project demonstrates the technical feasibility of minimising the energy consumption of a home without sacrificing the living comfort. Domestic energy costs have been reduced by 45% compared to  conventional apartments of comparable size. (Printed 1998)

62: Ethanol-powered Buses Reduce Vehicle Emissions in Stockholm, Sweden

Since 1990, Stockholm's city centre has been served by 32 Scania ethanol-powered buses. These buses generate far lower emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulates than diesel-powered buses, and there is no net carbon dioxide effect as the raw material is based on forestry by-products. The company has been so pleased with the results that it is now phasing out diesel buses. (Printed 1997)

61: Lely Off-shore Wind Farm in the Netherlands

A demonstration off-shore wind farm has been built in the IJsselmeer, a large  freshwater lake in the Netherlands. The wind farm comprises four 500 MW, two-bladed wind turbines, and produces about 3,500 MWh/year. The results of the project are of particular interest to prospective wind farm developers who have access to shallow coastal waters. (Printed 1997)

60: Anaerobic Digestion of Farm Waste in the UK

The introduction of an anaerobic digestion system, incorporating a combined heat and power unit, has provided a UK agricultural college's farm with a clean, simple, easy-to-use method of manure treatment. The system has great potential for  cutting costs and even generating profit. It produces valuable electricity and heat, and the end products of the digester - liquid slurry and fibre - provide fertiliser and  compost which can be sold to garden centres and other customers. (Printed 1997)

59: Stand-alone Power System in Norway

A stand-alone power system, consisting of a wind turbine, an array of photovoltaic panels, a battery bank and a diesel generator, supplies electricity to a single  household and a small workshop on the island of Lyklingholmen, off the coast of Norway. The system has been operating since 1993, and electricity production from the renewable sources is about 4,000 kWh/year. The investment cost is estimated to be about 35% of that required to connect the island to the grid. (Printed 1997)

58: Food Production Using Biomass Technology (USA)

A coffee roasting system using wood chips has been developed by a US company. A year-long demonstration of the roasting method showed that biomass combustion can be a safe, low-cost alternative to the use of natural gas in a food processing operation. The system uses proprietary furnace technology characterised by thermal control and clean combustion, which, when used with wood chips, achieves an even, slow roast, resulting in high-quality coffee flavour.  The technology has potential for use in other medium-temperature applications in food processing, district heating and small-scale energy production. (Printed 1997)

57: Small-scale Hydro-power at Mae Ya, Thailand (UK Project)

This hydro-power plant, situated in a Thai National Park, has been fully operational since 1991. It was specifically designed to satisfy local environmental constraints. The design also includes special features to remove highly abrasive silt from the turbine system. (Printed 1997)

56: Solar Panels Supplement District Heating in Denmark

In Marstal, Denmark the oil-fired district heating system is supplemented by heat from a large solar collector system. The typical annual heat output of the Marstal system is about 26,000 MWh. Annual output of the solar collectors is about 3,250  MWh, replacing about 350,000 kg of waste oil. The solar system consists of 640 collectors with a combined area of 8,064 square metres. By using solar energy to supplement the district heating system, emissions of atmospheric pollutants have been reduced. (Printed 1997)

55: Landfill Gas Powers Brick Production (UK)

This landfill gas project demonstrates how co-operation between industry and a local authority can work to their mutual benefit and to the advantage of the community as a whole. A clay products company extracts clay from quarries to supply its nearby brickworks. The cavities are then filled with refuse from the  surrounding area. Methane produced by the decomposing waste is collected and used to fire the brick kilns. The landfill site has been carefully landscaped and has become an amenity for local residents, as well as providing wild-life habitats. (Printed 1997)

53: Landfill Gas from a Land Reclamation Site in Tokyo Harbour, Japan

The first Japanese power plant fuelled by landfill gas (LFG) was built in 1986 at the land reclamation landfill site inside Tokyo Harbour. In nine years of operation the, plant (with a capacity of 960 kW) has recovered 19 million m3 of LFG and generated 34.8 GWh of energy. The project has successfully demonstrated in Japan the practicability of LFG power generation on a sea-based site using waste for land reclamation. (Printed 1997)

52: Biphase Turbine at a Geothermal Well: Economic Benefits, USA

A biphase turbine applied to a geothermal well can produce power from both the steam and the brine flow, providing up to 40% more power. After scaled-down  trials, a full sized (0.76 m diameter) turbine was installed at a geothermal well in Mexico which has a relatively high inlet pressure. The project has demonstrated the commercial viability of biphase power production and the installation of similar plant is being considered for several geothermal wells world-wide. (Printed 1997)

51: Ethanol as Aviation Fuel, USA

 Aviation gasoline, the only leaded fuel remaining in the US transportation fuel market, is to be phased out. This brochure describes a project which demonstrates that ethanol represents a viable alternative. Aircraft fuelled by ethanol from a variety of agricultural wastes have been flown at airshows in the USA, South America and Europe. The brochure gives details of economics and engine performance. (Printed 1997)

50: Wind Turbine in Japan's Highest Wind Speed Area

A 300 kW wind turbine has been erected at Muroto, Japan. Although the area's annual mean wind speed is 6.2 m/s, well suited to electricity generation, typhoons are frequent and severe in the area with winds gusting up to 84.5 m/s. In its first full year in operation the wind turbine generated 512 MWh of electricity, exceeding its predicted output. (Printed 1997)

49: Norwegian Wind Farm Located in Complex Terrain

Norway's first wind farm is located at Vikna, a group of islands at a latitude of 65° north. The five wind turbines have a total rated power of 2.2 MW and produce  some 6 GWh/year at a cost of about NOK 0.47/kWh (where NOK is the Norwegian krone). The area has complex topography and this presented several challenges in designing the layout of the wind farm. (Printed 1997)

46: A Solar Desalination System Using the Membrane Distillation Process, Japan

A desalination system, which uses a membrane distillation process provided with heat and electricity generated by solar energy, has been developed in Japan. The system produces fresh water by passing sea water through a pervaporation membrane module. Heat to warm the sea water is provided by a solar collector, and the pumps are powered by photovoltaic panels so that the system can be  installed at sites without an electricity supply. Because it uses simple equipment and needs no expert maintenance, batteries or electricity supply, the desalination system is well suited for use in isolated areas. (Printed 1996)

45: Large Inland Wind Farm in Denmark

The 24 MW Rejsby Moor wind farm is considered to be large even by Danish standards. Its 40 stall-regulated wind turbines are expected to produce 60 GWh/year of electricity at DKK 0.25/kWh (where DKK is the Danish krone). The wind farm was built between May and July 1995 and its total cost is budgeted at  DKK 150 million. The siting of the farm took into account the visual impact of a large wind farm in an inland coastal area. (Printed 1996)

44: Landfill in Disused Quarries Produces Gas for Heat and Electricity, UK

Two sandstone quarries which had reached the end of their useful lives were filled with domestic waste. The large quantities of methane-rich gas formed by the microbial breakdown of the refuse was used by a purpose-built power station to generate electricity for sale to the regional electricity company and provide a direct gas supply to a local factory. Waste heat from the power station was used in a nearby fish farm. Between January and November 1995, the power station operated at 96% availability and produced 34 GWh of electricity. (Printed 1996)

43: A Centralised Biogas Plant Using Farm Slurry, Denmark

At the Ribe Biogas Plant in Denmark, surplus manure collected from several farms is combined with other organic waste and digested to produce biogas for a  combined heat and power station. The power station supplies district heating to part of the city of Ribe. The biogas plant handles about 400 tonnes of farm waste daily, producing 11,000-12,000 m3 of biogas. After a small loss in its first year of operation (1991), the plant's profits have been steadily increasing. (Printed 1996)

42: Efficient Use of Landfill Gas in a Power Station

In 1987 a UK company built a power station to use the gas collected from a landfill site. The gas fuels a turbine which drives an alternator generating 3.65 MW of electricity at an overall thermal efficiency of 27%. In 1991, a waste-heat boiler and condensing steam turbo-alternator were installed to exploit additional gas being collected and to make use of the heat wasted in the gas turbine exhaust. The power output increased to 9 MW and the overall thermal efficiency rose to about 40%. (Printed 1996)

40: Photovoltaic Hybrid System Powers a Remote House, USA

A photovoltaic and propane-fuelled generator hybrid system to meet the needs of electricity users in remote areas has been successfully demonstrated in the USA. The stand-alone hybrid system consists of a photovoltaic array rated at 1 kW, backed up by a 3.6 kW propane-fuelled generator, and a battery pack. Overall, the  system proved very reliable, achieving 97.8% availability over the two-year monitoring period. The cost compares favourably with the cost of grid connection. (Printed 1996)

39: Denmark's Second Off-shore Wind Farm, Denmark

Denmark's second (and the world's third) off-shore wind farm at Tunø Knob, 6 km off the east coast of Jutland, started operation in October 1995. It is providing  evidence that the economics of these wind farms will steadily improve with greater experience of off-shore conditions. Comprising 10 stand-alone turbines, each of  500 kW, the wind farm produced 25% more power than expected during its first year of operation. (Printed 1996)

38: Photovoltaic Charging Units for Electric Commuter Vehicles, USA

In 1992, a five-year programme was set up in Boston to demonstrate and monitor how electric cars "fuelled" by photovoltaics perform when integrated into the transportation system. Twenty electric vehicles were leased to commuters who drove them daily to three public transport stations. During the day, the cars were recharged at grid-connected photovoltaic stations close to the public transport parking sites. Most of the drivers opted to renew their lease for a second year. Phase 2 of the demonstration is now under way, testing more advanced electric vehicles. (Printed 1996)

37: Hydro-power for a Remote Alaskan Community, USA

Residents of the remote fishing community of King Cove, Alaska live far from the  nearest utility grid, and have therefore paid a premium for diesel-generated electricity. Now, a run-of-river hydro-electric facility, is dedicated to the community's needs. The 800 kW plant exploits the area's abundant rainfall and glacier melt, and will provide cheaper electricity to the residents for the next 30 to 40 years. King Cove is a demonstration of clean energy production for other remote communities with suitable water resources. (Printed 1996)

35: Tappi Wind Park, Japan

Since April 1992, Thoku Electric Power Company has been operating a demonstration wind power station on the windy Tsugaru peninsula in northern Japan. The station is the largest in Japan, having 10 turbines with a total rated  power output of 2,875 kW. This wind farm is located in an area with particularly strong winds (annual mean speed of about 10 m/s), and the utility has been studying its operation since the first five turbines were commissioned in 1992. (Printed 1996)

34: Volume Economics at Work in a Utility Photovoltaics Project, USA

A utility in the United States has introduced an innovative "green pricing" programme, in which customers pay a flat fee for photovoltaic electricity. This premium helps to defray the higher manufacturing costs that typically apply to a technology in the early and middle phases of commercialisation. Through its  progressive approach, the utility is demonstrating the buying advantage that can result from adopting a coherent policy of long-term, large volume purchasing. (printed 1996)

33: Refuse-to-energy Plant with Improved Utilisation of Municipal Waste, Japan

A new refuse incineration plant in Japan uses high-temperature/high pressure boilers to achieve a thermal efficiency of over 20%. The plant handles 800 tonnes/day of refuse, and generates 24 MWe with a specific power output of 750 kWh/tonne of refuse. Exhaust steam from the plant is used locally for district heating. The 80 tonnes of ash the plant produces is melted and turned into slag,  eliminating the need for a landfill site for final disposal. (Printed 1996)

32: Upgrading Landfill Gas to Natural Gas Quality in the Netherlands

Landfill gas can be used as a substitute for natural gas only if carbon dioxide is removed to increase the proportion of methane in the gas. Two Dutch landfill sites have been equipped with upgrading units to achieve this. One of these sites uses a water absorber to separate carbon dioxide and methane; the other uses a pressure swing adsorption system. Each unit is fed with 9 million m3/year of  landfill gas and produces 4.5 million m3/year of substitute natural gas. (Printed 1996)

29: A Multi-biofuel, Fluidised-bed, District Heating Plant in Sweden (Norwegian Project)

This project started in 1984 with a 65 MW district heating plant, including a 14 MW solid fuel plant. The plant included a specially-designed fluidised-bed boiler,  capable of burning all grades of solid fuel, including low-grade organic fuel. By 1992 the district heating plant served some 250 detached houses and 6000 flats,  as well as several schools and industrial premises. The biofuel boiler provides almost 60% of the energy required. (Printed 1996)

28: Vietnam Women's Union Promotes Photovoltaic Systems in Remote Areas (USA Project)

A rural electrification project run by the Vietnam Women's Union has installed photovoltaic lighting systems in 130 dwellings, five community centres and two  village markets in Vietnam. Individual families have financed their photovoltaic systems through a highly successful revolving loan system established by the US  Solar Electric Light Fund. The project has led to improved living conditions and economic growth of the households concerned. (Printed 1996)

27: A Zero-energy House in the Netherlands

A Dutch energy consultant has developed and demonstrated a house designed to produce as much energy as it consumes. Energy consumption was reduced by insulation, minimising the surface/volume ratio, reducing the window surface area and using energy efficient equipment. The roof of the house carries 3.4 kWp in photovoltaic cells, connected to the public grid, and a 12 m2 active (thermal) solar collector. (Printed 1996)

26: Photovoltaics Provide Electricity to Rural Communities in the Philippines (USA Project)

Almost a million rural households in the Visayas region of the Philippines have no electrical power. Solar Resources Inc of Wilmington, Massachusetts, USA has  entered into a joint venture with three Philippine companies to install and monitor 18 residential photovoltaic demonstration systems to provide electricity to rural families for lighting and radio or television. (Printed 1995)

25: Promoting Rural Photovoltaic Electrification in Honduras (USA Project)

In Honduras, photovoltaic electrical systems are viable for powering rural areas and relatively poor farmers can pay for photovoltaic equipment, its installation and financing. These facts have been demonstrated through activities promoted by Enersol Associates Inc, an international non-profit organisations. A Honduran coffee co-operative named COMARCA, has supplied more than 100 photovoltaic  systems to farmers in the Marcala region of Honduras which provide enough electricity for lighting, black-and-white televisions, radios and appliances such as fans and blenders. (Printed 1995)

23: Central Solar Heating Plant with Short-term Storage in Sweden

This central solar heating plant is connected to the district heating system of Falkenberg, a small town in Sweden. The plant includes a ground-based flat-plate solar collector array of 5,500 m2; and an insulated steel storage tank holding 1,100 m3; of water. Between 1990-92 the annual average of the solar heat delivered to the district heating network was 1.53 GWh (280 kWh/m2;), which  makes up 6% of the total heat delivered. (Printed 1995)

22: Delabole Wind Farm, UK

Ten wind turbines are installed on a farm in Cornwall, in the south-west of  England, with a total rated capacity of 4 MW. The turbines produce about 10-12 GWh annually. Public attitude surveys showed that many of the people living in the area near the site who disapproved or were unsure of the concept of a wind farm before construction have changed their minds in favour of the concept after 6 months of operation. (Printed 1995)

21: Solar Energy Heats Indoor Swimming Pools in Norway

A new solar energy system, the Solar Energy Roof, is integrated into the roof of the Gullbring Centre in Telemark, Norway. Two swimming pools are supplied with heat recovered from dehumidified ventilation air and other sources and with heat  from two solar energy systems, one for each pool. The system has been in operation since April 1994. (Printed 1995)

20: Use of Incineration Heat from Integrated Waste Treatment in Japan

The Waste Treatment and Resource Recovery Centre of Toyohashi City in Japan disposes of waste efficiently while making good use of energy and other resources, by integrating the treatment of municipal, agricultural and industrial waste. The Centre supplies heat from the incinerators to local greenhouses, to the plant and buildings in the Centre, to an adjacent gymnasium and also generates electricity. Compost is also produced from the household organic wastes and animal faeces. (Printed 1995)

19: Low - head 11 MW Hydro Plant in the Netherlands

After a number of feasibility studies, the weir at Linne, in the Netherlands was selected as the best site for an 11 MW hydro-power plant on the river Maas.  During the years following completion in 1989, an average of 31 GWh of electricity was produced each year. This was 20 GWh/year lower than expected due to the  unexpected fluctuation in the water level during the years the project was monitored, although technically, the plant functioned well. (Printed 1995)

17: Poultry Litter Power Station in the United Kingdom

Poultry litter has presented a waste disposal problem to the poultry industry in many parts of the United Kingdom. The plant at Eye is a small to medium scale  power station, fired using poultry litter, and generates 12.7 MW of electricity which is supplied, through the local utility, to the National Grid. The poultry litter comes from large climate-controlled buildings (broiler houses) where birds, reared for meat production, are allowed to roam freely. (Printed 1995)

16: 36 MW Power Station Fired by Waste Wood in Michigan, USA

A power station burning wastewood is providing 36.2 MW of electricity to a city in Michigan, USA while helping to mitigate environmental concerns. The Grayling Generating Station produces power for local industry and residents, generates a valuable soil additive, and shares waste-water treatment capacity with the new  sewage plant for the city of Grayling. The generating station began commercial operation in June 1992 and has operated beyond its guaranteed level of availability. (Printed 1995)

15: 1 MW Stall-regulated Wind Turbine in Denmark

In 1993, a 1 MW stall-regulated wind turbine was built at Avedøre Holme, south of Copenhagen, Denmark. This type of self-regulating turbine is simpler, requires less maintenance and service and thus may be more suitable than pitch-regulated  machines for off-shore locations. The installation sited by the Avedøre Power Station was constructed to blend with the station's architecture. (Printed 1995)

14: Wind Energy Developments at Altamont Pass, USA

This brochure has been withdrawn

13: The World's First Off-shore Wind Farm sited in Denmark

The world's first off-shore wind farm of eleven 450 kW turbines has been in operation since 1991 near Vindeby, in Denmark. The installation has provided valuable experience and information about the design, construction, operation and maintenance of a wind farm positioned to overcome planning constraints and  limited land resources. The wind farm is expected to produce about 12 GWh each year, enough electricity for about 3,500 single-family homes. (Printed 1995)

12: Waste-to-energy Incineration Plant in London (UK)

A waste-to-energy plant, fired by 420,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste a year, has been commissioned in the London Borough of Lewisham in the United Kingdom. The project started in 1986 when landfill disposal was becoming increasingly difficult. The incineration plant generates 32 MW of electricity, enough to power about 30,000 homes. (Printed 1995)

11: Landfill Gas Fuelled Power Plant Using a Lean-burn Gas Engine, Norway

A power plant is fuelled by gas from a landfill site. The electrical efficiency of the plant is 37%, with a net electrical output of 1.3 MW. The use of a specially tuned, medium speed, lean-burn engine is expected to prolong the life of the power plant and decrease the running costs per kWh produced, compared to similar plants. (Printed 1995)

8: Solar Domestic Hot Water System in a Large-scale Housing Development in the Netherlands

About 1,000 houses in a single project are being provided with a solar domestic hot water system. Energy-saving considerations were an important factor in the  design of the houses. The large scale reduced the hot water system cost by about 20%, which results in a pay-back period of about 35 years. The construction started in May 1993 and is due for completion in mid-1995. (Printed 1994)

7: Power from Scrap Tyres at Wolverhampton, UK

A scrap tyre incinerator generates electricity for the local grid and produces by-products for the steel and zinc industries. This method for disposing of waste  tyres is environmentally acceptable and creates local employment. (Printed 1994)

5: Power Generation from Landfill Gas, Middleton Broom, UK

Gas from a landfill site is pumped 1,500 m to the power station. Commissioned in 1993, the plant has a capacity of 1.2 MW, feeding its output into the electricity grid. (Printed 1994)

4: Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Wastes in Victoria, Australia

An anaerobic digestion system on a pig farm reduces the huge amount of piggery waste and associated odour problems, produces energy in the form of electricity and heat, and yields a useful fertiliser by-product. The pay-back period of the digester is about 5-6 years. (Printed 1994)

3: Wood Waste Combustion in a Greenhouse in the Netherlands

The installation is no longer in operation and the company is dispossessed / expropriated. This brochure has been deleted

2: Manure Digestion in a Poultry Farm in the Netherlands

The anaerobic digestion system on a poultry farm reduces the pollution from chicken manure and reduces energy consumption. The manure is digested in a  two-stage process, yielding biogas - which replaces the use of natural gas in the farm's cogeneration plant. The pay-back period of the digester is about 5.9 years. (Printed 1994)

1: Wind Farm on a Disused Airfield, Haverigg, UK

Five 225 kW turbines were installed and began operating in 1992. The output of 3 GWh of electricity was fed into the electricity grid in the first year of operation. The project was sited in an area of low environmental impact and provided an economic stimulus to the local community. (Updated 1998)

Last updated 16 July, 2001

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